Was Ist Nox
Nox (lateinisch nox ‚Nacht') steht für: Nox (Mythologie), in der römischen Mythologie die Personifizierung der Nacht/Finsternis; Nox (Einheit), veraltete Einheit. Stickoxide (NOx). Ähnliche Begriffe: Stickstoffoxide, Stickstoffmonoxid (NO), Stickstoffdioxid (NO2),. Definition: NOx ist der Oberbegriff für eine Gruppe. Da es aufgrund der vielen Oxidationsstufen des Stickstoffs mehrere Stickstoff-Sauerstoff-Verbindungen gibt, werden sie auch mit NOx abgekürzt. Stickoxide sind.
MetaNavigationEntstehung und Eigenschaften von Stickoxiden (NOx) im Automobil. NOx ist der Oberbegriff für eine Gruppe hochreaktiver Gase, die alle in unterschiedlichen Mengen Stickstoff und Sauerstoff enthalten [so zum Beispiel Stickstoff. Stickoxide oder Stickstoffoxide ist ein Sammelbegriff für zahlreiche gasförmige Oxide des Stickstoffs. Stickstoffmonoxid und Stickstoffdioxid werden als NOₓ zusammengefasst. In NOₓ-Gemischen höherer Konzentration kommen auch die Spezies N₂O₃ und.
Was Ist Nox NoxPlayer Download VideoHow to Play Lineage 2 Revolution on Pc English Version with NOX Player
Solubility in water. Refractive index n D. Molecular shape. Dipole moment. Std molar entropy S o ATC code. Routes of administration.
Biological half-life. Related nitrogen oxides. Main article: Nitrous oxide engine. Main article: Nitrous oxide medication.
Further information: Nitrous oxide medication. Medicine portal. Barron's Educational Series. World Health Organization model list of essential medicines: 21st list Geneva: World Health Organization.
License: CC BY-NC-SA 3. Bibcode : Sci Bibcode : NatCC Swiss Propulsion Laboratory. Additional energy from decomposition as a monopropellant: ISP of s Scaled Composites.
Archived from the original PDF on 12 July Retrieved 29 December For example, N2O flowing at psi in an epoxy composite pipe would not react even with a J ignition energy input.
At psi, however, the required ignition energy was only 6 J. January "Engine Basics: Detonation and Pre-Ignition". Retrieved 18 December Retrieved 19 February The Washington Post.
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Bibcode : AmSci.. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences.
Bibcode : RSPTA. Researches, chemical and philosophical —chiefly concerning nitrous oxide or dephlogisticated nitrous air, and its respiration.
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The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine. A history of the discovery, of the application of nitrous oxide gas, ether, and other vapours, to surgical operations.
Gaylord Wells. Indian J Anaesth. The Inter Ocean. Retrieved 26 October The BlueTEC was on the Ward's 10 Best Engines list for and In February , Mercedes-Benz , Daimler AG, Bosch LLC and Bosch GmbH were sued by private plaintiffs alleging BlueTec violates standards in a manner similar to the Volkswagen emissions scandal.
District Judge Jose L. Linares dismissed the lawsuit without prejudice, finding the plaintiffs had alleged no standing.
Daimler introduced BlueTEC in the Mercedes E-Class using the DeNO x system and GL-Class using SCR at the North American International Auto Show.
At that time, these BlueTEC vehicles were and state legal, respectively, in the United States a state vehicle does not meet the more stringent California emission standards that have also been adopted by four other states.
Daimler AG has entered into an agreement with Volkswagen and Audi to share BlueTEC technology with them in order to increase the Diesel passenger-vehicle market in the United States.
The Jetta and the Tiguan use NOx adsorbers , while the Touareg uses a Selective Catalytic Reduction catalytic converter. In August VW Group announced that cooperation on BlueTEC with Daimler AG would end.
The reasoning for this change is due to the recognition of the VW TDI branding. VW did not want to use a competitor's branding for a product they would introduce into the market.
By a BlueTEC version of the Mercedes Sprinter was released. The BlueTEC systems allowed the elimination of much of the EGR in that vehicle's engine, which as a result gives horsepower kilowatts compared to the non-BlueTec engine's horsepower kilowatts.
Daimler Trucks uses BlueTEC on all its Freightliner and Western Star Trucks destined for highway use, as these vehicles are only available with diesel engines.
Die mitgeführte Menge an Stickstoff ist stark brennstoffabhängig; dementsprechend variieren auch die durch die Verbrennung entstehenden Anteile von thermischem und Brennstoff-NO x im Rauchgas.
Man unterscheidet bei festen Brennstoffen zwei Arten der Stickstofffreisetzung. Die homogene Freisetzung beschreibt die Ausgasung des im Brennstoff gebundenen Stickstoffs mit den flüchtigen Bestandteilen, während die heterogene den Abbrand zum Beispiel des Restkoks beschreibt.
Wesentliche Quelle für Brennstoff-NO x sind die flüchtigen Bestandteile des Brennstoffes. Hierbei durchläuft der mitgeführte Brennstoff mehrere Reaktionsschritte, die über Blausäure HCN und Hydrazin NH n zu NO und N 2 führen.
Dadurch erhöht sich in der Summe die Menge an molekularem Stickstoff. Statt der Umsetzung zu N 2 kann die Reaktion der Brennstoffradikale CH n mit N 2 wieder zur Bildung von NO x führen.
Wesentlicher Einflussfaktor sind die entstehenden Kohlenwasserstoff -Radikale, die als Zwischenprodukte der Verbrennung kohlenstoffhaltiger fossiler Brennstoffe vorliegen.
Promptes NO x entsteht in sehr schnellen Bildungsreaktionen in vergleichbar geringen Mengen und ist im Vergleich zum thermischen NO x kaum temperaturabhängig, wenngleich der Anteil mit steigender Temperatur zunimmt.
Dazu gehören Luftstufung , Brennstoffstufung , interne Abgasrückführung , externe Abgasrückführung, Primäradditivierung sowie Quenchen Eindüsung von Wasser zur Temperatur-Minderung.
Auch für die Abgase von Kraftfahrzeugen kommt die katalytische Abgasreinigung zum Einsatz. Als Nebenreaktionen können geringe Mengen an Lachgas entstehen.
Deswegen ändert sich die Halbwertszeit der an den Reaktionen beteiligten Stoffe mit der Höhe, und manche Zwischenprodukte, die in Bodennähe nur sehr kurzlebig sind, sind in der Stratosphäre sehr viel beständiger.
Salpetrige Säure könnte in der Atmosphäre durch die wahrscheinlich heterogene Reaktion entstehen. Allerdings unterliegt sie dann der Photolyse , weshalb sie in vielen chemischen Modellen als Quelle für OH-Radikale angesehen wird.
Distickstoffpentoxid kann als Zwischenprodukt in der Atmosphäre auftreten. Es entsteht z. In Portugal, Volkswagen said it had sold 94, vehicles with the software.
As the rules violation involved enabling emission controls during testing, but turning it off under normal conditions to improve performance or fuel mileage, it has been speculated that the software update might make cars perform less efficiently and impair fuel economy ; according to VW, however, its proposed solutions will be designed to achieve legal EU emissions compliance without impairing engine performance or consumption.
The company also announced a review of all of its brands and models, including its supercar marque Bugatti.
On 8 October , Volkswagen US CEO Michael Horn said in testimony before the US Congress that it could take years to repair all the cars, especially the older models, due to the required complex hardware and software changes.
He said that the fixes would likely preserve fuel economy ratings but, "there might be a slight impact on performance". On 12 October , Paul Willis, Volkswagen UK managing director, told the Commons Transport Select Committee that about , Volkswagen cars in the UK will need fuel injectors altered as well as a software fix.
The 1. It also announced plans to accelerate the development of electric cars and plug-in hybrids, as well as petrol, instead of diesel engines for smaller cars.
On 12—13 October , Volkswagen Group vehicle drivers in the UK started receiving notification letters, to "rectify the issue".
At the beginning of October , Volkswagen suggested to let car owners decide whether their cars would be recalled for handling.
Volkswagen then decided to recall around 8. The German authorities require that Volkswagen remove the software and that Volkswagen ensures that emission rules are fulfilled.
On 18 November , Autoblog reported that the KBA was reviewing a Volkswagen fix for the affected 1. As of February , there were three sizes of affected diesel engines, and more than a dozen variations to the repairs exist, prompting Volkswagen to roll out the recalls in waves for each cluster of vehicle; the first model to be repaired was the low-volume Volkswagen Amarok.
German motoring journal Auto Motor und Sport tested two Amarok TDI pickups pre and post software update and found that whilst engine power had remained the same, fuel consumption had increased by 0.
In France, the MediaCom media agency, which buys advertising for Volkswagen, warned the French newspapers on 22 September that it would cancel planned Volkswagen and Audi campaigns in case they would cover the emission violations.
On the occasion of German Unity Day , Volkswagen launched an ad campaign in German Sunday newspapers, that it wanted to express its joy about the 25th anniversary of German reunification, its pride about having shaped the country together with all people for the last 25 years, to give thanks for the confidence of the customers it had experienced during all this time and that it wanted to thank all its employees and trade partners in Germany, and that in one sentence, that "it would do everything to win back the confidence of its customers".
In September , Volkswagen's Belgian importer, D'Ieteren, announced that it would offer free engine upgrades to customers who had ordered a vehicle with a diesel engine which was likely to have been fitted with illegal software.
As of October , Sales of vehicles with EA engines were halted in some European countries, including Spain, Switzerland, Italy, the Netherlands, Belgium and the UK.
In the United States, Volkswagen withdrew its application for emissions certification for its diesel models, leaving thousands of vehicles stranded at ports in October , which the company said contained software which should have been disclosed to and certified by the EPA.
On 8 October , Volkswagen US CEO Michael Horn testified before the United States House Committee on Energy and Commerce stating: "This was not a corporate decision, from my point of view, and to my best knowledge today.
This was a couple of software engineers who put this in for whatever reason All the indications are that residual values are unaffected";  the company, which continued to face pressure from E.
On 21 April , the federal district court for the Northern District of California, which was appointed in December to oversee almost all of the US litigation, including claims filed by vehicle owners and state governments, announced that Volkswagen would offer its US customers "substantial compensation" and buyback nearly , 2.
Following its admission and recall plans in the United States, Volkswagen also started to establish similar plans in the European Union, where it was estimated that 8.
The European Union warned Volkswagen in that it did not believe it was moving fast enough to issue repairs on the recalled cars, provide consumers with appropriate information on what steps Volkswagen was doing to resolve the problem, and what compensation they were offering affected consumers.
In Germany, over 60, civil lawsuits of various degrees representing about , citizens were filed from through in Germany by Volkswagen owners, seeking similar compensation as Volkswagen had given to United States drivers.
A case led by the Federation of German Consumer Organizations VZBV was brought against Volkswagen. At the Braunschweig Oberlandesgericht Higher Regional Court Volkswagen argued that where the United States had banned the affected cars, no EU member state had banned the affected vehicle, and thus there was no basis for any compensation.
However, Judge Michael Neef rejected a summary judgement for Volkswagen in September , allowing what was anticipated to be a multi-year case to go forward.
One of the other civil cases, serving as a template for those not covered by the VZBV case, had reached the Federal Court of Justice , Germany's highest court, and in May , ruled that the consumer was entitled to the full market value of the car, several times larger than what the settlement would have offered.
It is unclear how much Volkswagen will own from a result of the remaining civil lawsuits. A similar class-action suit against Volkswagen representing more than 91, owners is currently underway in the United Kingdom, seeking greater compensation for being sold vehicles known by Volkswagen to be defective.
The High Court of Justice had giving preliminary findings in the case in April that there is a likelihood that Volkswagen did sell vehicles with a "defeat device" and attempted to abuse the process, allowing the trial to go forward.
A peer-reviewed study published in Environmental Research Letters estimated that approximately 59 premature deaths will be caused by the excess pollution produced between and by vehicles equipped with the defeat device in the United States, the majority due to particulate pollution 87 percent with the remainder due to ozone 13 percent.
The study also found that making these vehicles emissions compliant by the end of would avert an additional early deaths.
Earlier non peer-reviewed studies published in media sources, quoted estimates ranging from 10 to excess deaths in the United States related to the defeat devices based on varying assumptions.
Since NO 2 is a precursor to ground-level ozone it may cause respiratory problems "including asthma, bronchitis and emphysema ".
A peer-reviewed study published in Environmental Pollution estimated that the fraudulent emissions would be associated with 45 thousand disability-adjusted life years DALYs and a value of life lost of at least 39 billion US dollars.
In June , Axel Friedrich, formerly with the German equivalent of the E. NO x also contribute to acid rain , and visibly brown clouds or smog due to both the visible nature of NO 2 , and the tropospheric ozone created by NO.
NO and NO 2 are not greenhouse gases, whereas N 2 O is. In October , the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission announced that it will not be investigating Volkswagen for possible violations of emissions standards, citing that a reasonable consumer would not be concerned about the tailpipe emissions of their vehicle and hence would not be a deciding factor in their purchase.
In October , the Belgian Chamber of Representatives set up a special Dieselgate committee. In January , public broadcaster VRT reported on Opel Zafira cars having lower emissions after an update compared to before receiving the update.
Opel denied deploying software updates influencing emissions, and the Economic Inspection of the Federal Government started an investigation on the request of Minister of Consumer Protection Kris Peeters.
As of October , Volkswagen Brazil confirmed that 17, units of its Amarok mid-size pickups produced between and and sold in Brazil were equipped with the emissions cheating software.
The automaker may still appeal the decision. According to the judge, the purpose was "to compensate the Brazilian society as a collective moral damage of a pedagogical and punitive nature because of the collective fraud caused in the domestic motor vehicle market".
In September , Environment Canada announced that it had begun an investigation to determine if "defeat devices" were installed in Volkswagen vehicles to bypass emission control tests in Canada.
Ontario provincial authorities executed a search warrant at Volkswagen Canada offices in the Toronto area on 19 September  as part of its investigation into the emissions scandal that rocked the company two years ago.
The Ministry of the Environment and Climate Change have charged Volkswagen AG with one count under the province's Environmental Protection Act, alleging the German company did not comply with Ontario emission standards.
The allegations have not been proven in court. In July , Volkswagen Group Canada announced plans for its new Electrify Canada subsidiary to launch a network of public fast-charging stations in major cities and along major highways, starting with 32 charging sites in the four most-populated provinces: Ontario, Quebec, British Columbia and Alberta.
On 9 December , Volkswagen AG was charged with 60 counts of contravening the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, In October , China's General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine announced the recall of 1, imported Tiguan SUVs and four imported Passat B6 sedans, in order to fix the emissions software problems.
In September , Government regulatory agencies and investigators initiated proceedings in France, Italy, Germany, Switzerland, Spain, the Netherlands, the Czech Republic and Romania.
Several countries [ vague ] called for a Europe-wide investigation. The resolution urged for tougher emissions tests to be fully implemented in , instead of being phased in between and , as had been originally planned.
Also, it was revealed [ by whom? Dutch MEP Bas Eickhout referred to the new test as "a sham",  while liberal democrat MEP Catherine Bearder described the legislation as "a disgraceful stitch-up by national governments, who are once again putting the interests of carmakers ahead of public health".
In June , documents leaked to the press indicated that in , European Commission officials had been warned by their in-house science team that at least one car manufacturer was possibly using a NOx-related defeat device in order to bypass emission regulation.
In September , European union laws changed and the European commission has the right to check car conformity to emission standards and to recall vehicles when needed.
Renault and Peugeot's headquarters were raided by fraud investigators in January and April , respectively. As of January , Renault recalled 15, cars for emission testing and fixing.
In September former Volkswagen chief executive Martin Winterkorn resigned over the scandal, saying he had no knowledge of the manipulation of emissions results.
One week later German prosecutors launched an investigation against him. On 15 April Winterkorn and four other executives were charged by prosecutors in Braunschweig , Germany.
Audi's then CEO Rupert Stadler was taken into German custody in June until being released in October , when he was also removed from being CEO.
The Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department banned the Volkswagen Caddy on 16 October The report called the defeat device "not a product failure but a clear case of cheating".
On 6 October Italy's regulator of competition announced plans to investigate whether Volkswagen engaged in "improper commercial practices" when promoting its affected diesel vehicles.
In December the Dutch consumers authority ACM decided to investigate whether Dutch laws were broken and consumers misled, a report was due by June Norway's prosecutors opened a criminal investigation into possible economic crimes committed by VW.
On 1 October the Romanian Automotive Register RAR stopped issuing registration documents for Volkswagen vehicles equipped with Euro 5 diesel engines.
On 28 September , the departments of Environmental Affairs and Transport and the National Regulator for Compulsory Specifications said they still needed to determine whether local cars had been affected by the rigging of US vehicle emissions tests.
As of 19 January South Korea, the world's eighth-largest diesel-car market, planned a criminal case against Volkswagen executives.
Park Pan-kyu, a deputy director at South Korea's environment ministry said: "If South Korean authorities find problems in the Volkswagen diesel cars, the probe could be expanded to all German diesel cars".
In August , the government announced a ban on 8 VW Group diesel models cars for cheating emissions regulations. As of 28 October , a Spanish court had opened a criminal probe against Volkswagen AG, to establish whether the company's actions broke any local laws.
As of 29 September , Sweden's chief prosecutor was considering starting a preliminary investigation into Volkswagen's emissions violations.
On 26 September Switzerland banned sales of Volkswagen diesel cars, marking the most severe step taken so far by a government in reaction to the emissions crisis.
The Department for Transport announced on 24 September that it would begin re-testing cars from a variety of manufacturers to ensure the use of "defeat devices" was not industry wide.
The Select Committee published a letter from Paul Willis, Managing Director of Volkswagen Group UK Ltd of 21 December stating: "In very simple terms, the software did amend the NOx characteristics in testing.
The vehicles did meet EU5 standards, so it clearly contributed to meeting the EU5 standards in testing". A report on "real world" tests commissioned by the Government published in April showed emissions from 37 diesel engines up to 14 times higher than had been claimed, with every vehicle exceeding the legal limit of nitrogen oxide emissions.
VW suspended sales of TDI-equipped cars in the US on 20 September As of 6 October , the EPA decided to broaden its investigations onto 28 diesel-powered models made by BMW, Chrysler, General Motors, Land Rover and Mercedes-Benz.
The agency would initially focus on one used vehicle of each model, and widen the probe if it encountered suspicious data. On 4 January , the Justice Department, on behalf of the EPA, brought suit against Volkswagen in the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Michigan in Detroit.
It further claimed that Volkswagen entities provided misleading information and that material omissions impeded and obstructed ""efforts to learn the truth about the excess emissions".
Schneiderman also complained over Volkswagen's slowness in producing documents from its US files, claiming the company "has sought to delay responses until it completes its 'independent investigation' several months from now".
On 12 January , US regulators rejected Volkswagen's recall plans for its affected 2. On 29 March , Volkswagen was additionally sued by the United States Federal Trade Commission for false advertising due to fraudulent claims made by the company in its promotion of the affected models, which touted the "environmental and economic advantages" of diesel engines and contained claims of low emissions output.
The suit was consolidated into existing litigation over the matter in San Francisco, which would allow the FTC to participate in global settlements over the matter.
The Ninth U. Circuit Court of Appeals ruled on 1 June that Volkswagen was liable for further legal damage lawsuits brought by state and local governments in the emissions fraud.
The unanimous ruling by the court paved the way for two counties in Florida and Utah to proceed with litigation against Volkswagen, as well as potential further cases brought by jurisdictions in the USA.
In a statement, VW said it would ask the circuit court to review the ruling, and that the company if necessary would take the case to the U.
Supreme Court. On 9 September , James Robert Liang , a Volkswagen engineer working at Volkswagen's testing facility in Oxnard, California, admitted as part of a plea deal with the US Department of Justice that the defeat device had been purposely installed in US vehicles with the knowledge of his engineering team: "Liang admitted that beginning in about , he and his co-conspirators started to design a new "EA " diesel engine for sale in the United States.
When he and his co-conspirators realized that they could not design a diesel engine that would meet the stricter US emissions standards, they designed and implemented [the defeat device] software".
On 7 January , former top emissions compliance manager for Volkswagen in the US Oliver Schmidt was arrested by the FBI on a charge of conspiracy to defraud the United States.
In addition, six executives have been criminally charged. On 3 May , former Volkswagen CEO Martin Winterkorn was indicted on fraud and conspiracy charges in the emissions scandal case.
He has repeatedly denied any knowledge of the rigged emissions tests. On 25 October , a final settlement was approved by a judge.
About , Volkswagen owners in the US were given the choice between a buyback or a free fix and compensation, if a repair becomes available.
Volkswagen will begin administering the settlement immediately, having already devoted several hundred employees to handling the process.
Of the buyback, , had been completed by 18 February with , more to be returned. In March , Reuters reported that , cars from the buyback program have been stored at 37 regional US staging sites;  some of the first reported sites included: Colorado Springs, Colorado;  Pontiac, Michigan;  Baltimore, Maryland;  San Bernardino, California;  and Gary, Indiana.
EPA approval. On 14 March , the U. Securities and Exchange Commission filed a complaint against Volkswagen and its former CEO Martin Winterkorn alleging that they defrauded investors by selling corporate bonds and asset-backed securities while knowingly making false and misleading statements to government regulators, underwriters, and consumers as to the quality of their automobiles.
By 27 September at least 34 class-action lawsuits had been filed in the United States    and Canada   on behalf of Volkswagen and Audi owners, accusing Volkswagen of breach of contract , fraudulent concealment, false advertising, and violations of federal and state laws, and positing the "diminished value" of diesels that will be fixed to conform with pollution regulations, due to possible reductions in horsepower and fuel efficiency.
On 7 October , the Los Angeles Times reported that the number of class-action lawsuits filed had grown to more than On 19 November , ABC News Australia reported that more than 90, VW, Audi and Skoda diesel vehicle owners had filed a class action lawsuit against Volkswagen in the country's Federal Court.
On 8 December , the United States Judicial Panel on Multidistrict Litigation issued an order consolidating over class actions against Volkswagen into a single multidistrict litigation , captioned In re: Volkswagen 'Clean Diesel' Marketing, Sales Practices, and Products Liability Litigation , MDL No.
Breyer of the federal district court for the Northern District of California. On 21 January , Judge Breyer held a hearing on the requests by over plaintiff's attorneys for some kind of leadership role in the gigantic Volkswagen MDL, of which over 50 sought to serve as lead counsel or to chair the plaintiffs' steering committee.
On 14 March , Volkswagen AG was sued in Germany for allegedly failing to inform financial markets in a timely manner about defeat devices used in diesel engines.
In November , Moody's Investors Service downgraded Volkswagen's bond credit rating from A2 to A3. In May , The Children's Investment Fund Management , run by Chris Hohn and retaining a 2 percent stake in Volkswagen preference stock, launched a campaign aiming to overhaul the company's executive pay system, arguing that "for years management has been richly rewarded with massive compensation despite presiding over a productivity and profit collapse", thereby leading to an "aggressive management behavior" and contributing to the diesel emission scandal.
Owners can also opt to have their car repaired free of charge or can sell it back to the company, who will pay back its estimated value from before the scandal began.
Leases can also be terminated without incurring penalty charges. Additionally, should they choose to decline the offer, they are free to pursue independent legal action against the firm.
In January , documents obtained by CEE Bankwatch Network provided more details for a European Investment Bank statement that its loans to Volkswagen may have been connected to the car makers use of cheating devices to rig emission tests.
The 'Antrieb RDI' loan was supposedly for creating cleaner drive trains. Click on the Start button to start running an instance from the multi instance manager.
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